Types of cerebral palsy

The presence of a movement disorder, caused by dysfunction of the central nerve system is therefore obligatory for the diagnosis. The types of movement disorders are subdivided in 3 main groups:

Spastic Cerebral Palsy
Here at least two of the next three symptoms are obligatory:
• abnormal posture and / or movement
• increased muscle strain (which can be variably present)
• pathological reflexes (hyperreflexion and / or reflex according to Babinski)

Atactic Cerebral Palsy
• abnormal posture and / or movement
• loss of normal muscle co ordination, so movement with abnormal strength, rhythm and precision like hypermetrics (missing of an object of the intended movement) and dysdiadochokinetics (not being able to quickly alternating a direction of movement)

Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy
• abnormal posture and / or movement, involuntary movements – also in rest
• involuntary, uncontrolled, repetitive and sometimes stereotype movements

Dystonic Cerebral Palsy
• hypokinesia, slow movements
• hypertonia: non speed dependent increased muscle tonus in passive movement

Hyperkinetic Cerebral Palsy (earlier also called chorea - athetoid Cerebral Palsy)
• hyperkinesia (fierce movements)
• hypotonia

Dystonic and hyper kinetic movement characteristics also can manifest themselves at the same time, during which the contribution of the two components can change and exchange in time. For that reason it is preferred to speak of a dyskinetic movement disorder, possibly considering the addition of the dystonic or hyperkinetic type.